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Note of the Day – December 12

Galatians 4:4-5

This series of Advent season notes has been examining Galatians 4:4, looking at each word or phrase in the verse, in order:

o%te de\ h@lqen to\ plh/rwma tou= xro/nou e)cape/steilen o( qeo\$ to\n ui(o\n au)tou= geno/menon e)k gunaiko/$ geno/menon u(po\ no/mon
“but when the fullness of time came, God set forth out from (him) his Son, coming to be out of a woman, coming to be under the Law…”

The conclusion of the sentence is found in verse 5, will be discussed in today’s note:

i%na tou\$ u(po\ no/mon e)cagora/sh| i%na th\n ui(oqesi/an a)pola/bwmen
“…so that he might buy out [i.e. redeem] the (one)s under (the) Law, so that we might receive from (him) placement as a son”

This verse is comprised of two purpose/result clauses, marked by the particle i%na (“[so] that”):

  • “so that [i%na] he might buy out [e)cagora/sh|] the ones under the Law [tou\$ u(po\ no/mon]”
  • “so that [i%na] we might receive from (him) [a)pola/bwmen] placement as a son [th\n ui(oqesi/an]”
Clause #1:

The first purpose/result involves redemption, the verb e)cagora/zw literally meaning “buy/purchase out”, the context being that of purchasing a slave out of servitude/bondage. The verb is rare, used only 4 times in the New Testament (all in the Pauline letters); the most relevant instance is in Gal 3:13, which I mentioned in the previous note. Gal 3:10-14 is generally parallel to 4:1-7:

  • Human beings are under the curse (i.e. under the Law and under sin), v. 10
  • Jesus came to be under the curse, by “coming to be” (geno/meno$) the curse himself (through his death on the cross, in fulfillment of the Law), v. 13
  • In so doing, he redeemed (e)chgo/rasen) humankind from the curse (of the Law)
  • As a result, believers receive the blessings and promise of Abraham (v. 14), i.e. we come to be children (sons) of Abraham, and heirs according to the promise (cf. 3:15-29)

The expression u(po\ kata/ran (“under the curse”) stands midway between the parallel expressions u(po\ no/mon (“under the Law”) and u(po\ a(marti/an (“under sin”)—this helps to explain the twofold meaning of e)cagora/zw in Gal 4:5:

  • human beings are purchased out of bondage to sin, freed from its enslaving power (cf. also 1 Cor 6:20; 7:23)
  • believers are freed from servitude to the Law of the old covenant, no longer bound by its authority

Clearly, this redemption applies to Gentiles as well as Israelites and Jews. Even though Gentiles are not “under the Law” in the sense of being obligated to observe the Torah, they are, in their own way, still under the Law. This is partly explained by the phrase “enslaved under [u(po/] the ‘elements’ [stoixei=a] of the world” in verse 3 (cf. also v. 9 and Col 2:8, 20), though Paul does not clarify the exact relationship between the Law and the “elements of the world”. The only information provided in the immediate context of Galatians and Colossians has to do with certain ceremonial/ritual behavior—observance of the Sabbath and holy days (Gal 4:10; Col 3:16-17), dietary and/or purity regulations (Col 3:20-22), and, possibly, circumcision (Col 3:11; also fundamental to the arguments in Galatians). In Romans 2:12-15; 3:9ff and 7:13ff, Paul offers a somewhat different description of how Gentiles are “under the Law” (and under the power of sin). For the uniquely Pauline understanding of the relationship between the Law and sin, see Gal 3:19-25; Rom 3:19-20; 5:18-21; 7:7-25; 11:32. Clearly, it is the sacrificial death of Christ that frees believers from the power of sin (and the Law)—Gal 2:19-20; 3:10-14, 23-26; Rom 3:21-26; 5:1-11, 18-21; 6:1-11, 14-15, 22; 7:1-6; 8:1-4; 10:4; 2 Cor 3:7-18, etc. Believers participate in Christ’s death (and resurrection) through faith and the Spirit, marked by the symbolism associated with baptism (Rom 6:3-4; Gal 3:27; 1 Cor 12:13; Col 2:12, etc).

Clause #2:

The second purpose/result clause involves sonship, that is, of believers’ status as sons (children) of God. This is typically described as adoption, though the Greek word (ui(oqesi/a) properly means “placement as a son”—often in the technical/legal sense of adoption, but it can be used in other symbolic/metaphorical ways as well. Paul uses the term in Rom 8:15, 23; 9:4 (and it is also in Eph 1:5). Note the context of these passages:

  • Rom 9:4—it is used of Israel, the people (collectively) considered as God’s “son” in a symbolic/spiritual sense (Exod 4:22; Hos 11:1f; Jer 31:9; cf. also Isa 1:2; 30:1, 9; Mal 1:6)
  • Rom 8:15—believers, through the Spirit, receive ‘adoption’ as sons of God
  • Rom 8:23—similarly of believers, but in an eschatological sense, tied to the resurrection (i.e. redemption of our bodies)
  • Eph 1:5—again of believers, but prior to our coming to faith, connected with the idea of predestination

Rom 8:15 is very close in language and meaning to Gal 4:5-6 (v. 6 will be discussed in the next daily note).

The verb a)polamba/nw (“take/receive from”) along with ui(oqesi/a expresses clearly the idea that, through Christ (and our trust/faith in him), we receive from God placement as sons (we are made his sons/children). Note the conceptual chiasm in vv. 4-5:

  • God sends forth his Son
    —as a human being under the Law
    —to redeem/purchase those enslaved under the Law (and sin)—as a result:
  • We receive placement (i.e. are ‘adopted’) as God’s sons

This is expounded further by Paul in verse 6.

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